Wednesday, August 23, 2017

12 Propositions on the Afghanistan War

Farah City, Afghanistan

The only long-term solution to the problem of Islamic terrorism is to de-Islamicize the Middle-East (and, thus, I suppose, the rest of the world) - in the same way that we de-Nazified Germany after World War Two. Obviously, there is currently no political will to do this on the part of any Western government.

Short of that, there are still some things that we can do, although precisely which things we can do are by no means obvious. Clearly, what happens in Afghanistan is important. It is a sort of test case for fighting Islamic terrorism without targeting Islam. The only thing that is obvious (to me) is that the right policy on Afghanistan is not obvious.

President Trump's recent commitment to renew and continue the military fight in Afghanistan, involving a change in military strategy as well as a probable (small) troop surge, seems reasonable to me. But I could be wrong.

Here are twelve propositions on the Afghanistan War. Let me know if you agree/disagree with them.

  • "Winning" in Afghanistan means being able to leave without the country becoming a base for Islamic terrorism.
  • We will never be able to win in that sense.
  • This is because aggressive Islam - which is the soil that nourishes contemporary terrorism - remains the religion of the vast majority of the population, and we explicitly have no intention or plan to change that.
  • Though secularism appeared to be on the rise in Afghanistan, a few generations ago, there is no evidence that this trend will return again to any segment of the Islamic world, at least in the foreseeable future. In the 21st century, it's more likely that Western Europe will go de facto Muslim than that secularist momentum will return to the Islamic world.
  • Even though an Afghanistan victory in the conventional sense is impossible, that doesn't mean that military involvement is useless or inadvisable. As George Bush famously claimed, "it's better to fight them over there than to face them here." While this dictum may be misapplied, it is not false.
  • A corollary of the above is that a relatively low-level military commitment may be the best option. Just because more troops won't enable us to win doesn't mean that continuing to invest in a fight involving a relatively small number of troops - minimizing lives and materiel lost - is a bad idea.
  • That indefinite military involvement with no possible victory may still be in the national interest cannot be stated publicly by political leaders, (though many Americans may nevertheless understand and agree with it), or, at least, no American leader has tried to state it.
  • This is another reason why low-level involvement may be preferable - involvement on a larger scale will be more likely to lead to calls for withdrawal.
  • That continuing involvement in a small-scale war may actually be healthy for a military force as a whole - in terms of tactics, training and so on - is a reasonable proposition.
  • This also cannot be stated publicly by political leaders.
  • American withdrawal from Afghanistan will probably mean that Iran, Russia and/or Pakistan will attempt to fill the vacuum.
  • This might be, on net, in our national interest (they would be doing the fighting for us). Or it might not.

Tuesday, August 22, 2017

In His Last Interview, Jerry Lewis Completely Destroys Annoying SJW "Journalist"

This utterly cringe inducing "interview" was apparently the last one Jerry Lewis ever gave. In it, he completely destroys Andy Lewis (no relation), a "journalist" from the Hollywood Reporter, who keeps obsessively asking annoying questions about Jerry Lewis' age (in fairness, Hollywood Reporter was doing a series on 90-year-old performers). Jerry Lewis gives one-word answers while pointedly glaring at the interviewer in contempt. Yet Andy Lewis forges on, digging himself ever deeper.

Who is Andy Lewis? His Twitter feed shows him to be an SJW cliche. Though he is associated with the Hollywood Reporter, there's almost nothing about Hollywood or film on the feed. Instead, 95% of his tweets are comprised of political hate - attack after attack on Donald Trump, his family, Christians, "Nazis" (anyone who disagrees with Andy Lewis's cliches), and so on and so forth. Many of his tweets and retweets feature obscenities. Then there's that ubiquitous "punch a Nazi" meme, which has of course been used to legitimize violence and censorship.

Based on the sound of his voice, I'm sure Andy Lewis couldn't punch himself out of a wet paper bag.

The video quickly went viral. And now, after Jerry Lewis' death, it appears to be going viral again.

True to form, Andy Lewis seems to think it's all about him, and even appears to be proud of his effort, especially as it was the Hollywood Reporter's most watched video up to that time. So, yesterday, he exploited Jerry Lewis's death to reveal the "inside story" of the embarrassing segment. "I did Jerry Lewis' last interview," he bragged. It is impossible to know whether anything he says about it is true. Jerry Lewis was tired, etc. And he's such a "tough interview," anyway, etc, etc.

That's odd, Jerry Lewis wasn't a tough interview here.

On the contrary, I think Jerry Lewis sensed that Andy Lewis was (apologies) a snotty little wuss, and reacted accordingly.

After someone else from the interview team finally gets Andy Lewis to stop - whispering, "okay we're finished" - Jerry Lewis stands up from his chair and says:

"Alright, clean it outta here."

I transcribed the interview, which picks up some of the tone. But I also recommend watching the video. It's probably the most awkward interview you will ever see.

But for those of us, middle-aged or older, who have always wanted to metaphorically punch a smirky millennial, it's damn righteous. 

Andy Lewis: Have you ever thought about retiring?

Jerry Lewis: Why?

AL: Was there never a moment that you thought it might be time to retire, or that you would want...

JL: Why?

AL: You come from, um, you come from a generation a little older, and I think of Bob Hope, George Burns, Sinatra, people you knew, many of whom didn't want to, uh, or never retired either, um, do you see similarities with them?

JL: None.

AL: None? What do you think drives people like you and them to want to keep working?

JL: Because we do it well.

AL: And how about, um, what, um, what's different about performing now for you than say 20 years ago how is it, how is it different for you?

JL: It isn't.

AL: Not not at all?

JL: Not at all.

AL: Have you made any, do you have to make any concessions to being, you know, older in your performing, or does do you keep the material fresh for yourself?

JL: By working at it.

AL: You've had a number of health issues over the last few years as people of your age do...

JL: Anyone that's 90 does.

AL: Anyone that's 90. Does continuing to work, does that, does that actually help you get healthier, you know, does being sort of busy and engaged, do you think that's actually, helps you get, get healthier?

JL: No.

AL: Do you think it hurts, like do you think...

JL: No.

[Long pause]

AL: You've been been coming to Vegas for, uh, you lived here for a while, you've been coming here for a long time, how is Vegas different for you than when you first came here, what was the first time you, you performed in Vegas?

JL: 1947.

AL: What, can you tell me what, what Vegas was like when you first showed up?

JL: It's not, it's the same.

AL: It's, it's the same?

JL: Exactly the same.

AL: Like what, what is it about Vegas that you like, or what is it about, like how would you describe the place, like when you show up in 1947 what was it, it wasn't it a little bit of a dusty cow town, it was, what was it, what was it like?

JL: A dusty cow town.

AL: And you still think of it as a sort of dusty cow town?

JL: No.

AL: And how about, uh, is performing in Vegas now for you different than it was then, like, just either the mechanics or the size of it...

JL: Nope.

AL: Not at all? And how about, um, what's your audience like, you know, now, you're still performing, you're 90, what, what's your, what's your audience like, who are your, who are your fans, are they different than they, than they used to be?

JL: No. They're still the same.

AL: Even, but you must have younger fans, who...

JL: Some are younger.

AL: What do you think it is, you have in, that, that attracts you to younger fans, like, like how have you sort of maintained your, your audience over the years?

JL: You tell them you're playing there and they show up.

AL: And you, nothing different than that?

JL: No.

AL: How about you have a, you've had a long and distinguished career, do you have a favorite period of your career a, a part of your career you look back on as, as a moment when you were, um, a favorite, happiest or your most creative?

JL: What do you mean?

AL: Like is there a period in your career you look back on where you, that was your, your happiest time or your favorite time?

JL: When my partner was alive.

AL: When your partner was alive. So working with, with Dean Martin was that your favorite...

JL: Yup.

AL: Uh, part of your your career?

JL: Yup.

AL: What, what made that partnership work for you, like what was...

JL: I'll show you some material - you'll know.

AL: But if I'm not looking at the material, can you give me, like, a sense of, like, what, how it worked for you?

JL: It was terrific.

AL: And how about, you have any advice for young, young 80-year-olds about staying active at 90, just sort of...

JL: Get a day job.

AL: Get a day job. But you've never had a, you've never actually had a, quote, day job, you've been a performer your, your whole life, isn't that right?

JL: Mm-hmm.

AL: And you just, you just, um, did a movie a couple years ago, just is coming out, Max Rose, what was it like to step behind...

JL: What movie?

AL: Ah, Max Rose, right?

JL: Yeah, I'm glad you remembered it.

AL: Uh, what was it like performing again after not having done it for for more than a decade?

JL: It's great.

AL: But was it, is it like riding a horse, you never forget, what was it...

JL: You never forget.

AL: Was it, was it at all scary or intimidating to come to...

JL: Not at all.

AL: Not at all. And you enjoyed it. Would you do another movie?

JL: Absolutely. We're planning one now.

AL: For you to star in?

JL: Mm-hmm.

AL: And, are you also, I think I read that you're, you're also still writing some screenplays or doing work...

JL: Right.

AL: Is that right?

JL: Yup

AL: Is it, is it easier now to write a screenplay...

JL: No, just as hard.

AL: Just as hard. And how about, do you take some time you say to write, or how do you, you do it, in a dictaphone, how do you do...

JL: if I tell you, you'll be doing it.

AL: Heh heh heh.

JL: Heh heh heh [Imitates his laugh].

AL: Well I meant the sort of mechanics of it, do you actually, like, you write by hand or do you, you type it, how do you do it, you type it on the computer...

JL: Mm-hmm..

AL: And so what are your, you're on tour now, what else do you have, um, planned for, for this year, 90th year?

JL: Mm-hmm.

AL: You have anything else like...

JL: Yeah, but nothing we want to talk about.

AL: And so you've worked with a lot of, a lot of people over the years, what, you have a favorite story about, like, Dean or, or Frank Sinatra or somebody that you, that you worked with but you know, over the years that you like to share?

JL: No.

AL: Not at all?

JL: None.

AL: How would you, do you have an unfavorite story you'd like...

JL: Nope. Not, for this.

Voice off Camera: So I guess we're finished.

AL: Sure. Anything else you want to...

JL: No.

Voice off Camera: So we're finished.

AL: Sure.

Voice off Camera: Thank you.

JL: [Getting up from chair] Alright, clean it outta here.

Monday, August 21, 2017

Jerry Lewis to Raymond Arroyo on 2015 EWTN Interview: "You're the best interviewer I've ever had, and I've had thousands."

Raymond Arroyo, the host of EWTN's The World Over, interviewed Jerry Lewis, a few days before Christmas, 2015. I suspect it was one of the most popular interviews Arroyo ever gave. I assume many of you remember it. I missed it.

Lewis died, yesterday, at the age of 91.

I've transcribed a few minutes of the interview, below (I had a bit of help on the last third of it from EWTN and Lifezette). The transcription is from the most "politically incorrect" section, where Lewis says, "the refugees should stay where the hell they are," praises Donald Trump and Ronald Reagan, makes a joke about how the Chinese name their children by seeing where thrown utensils land on a platter - "ting, tong," and (worst heresy of all) calls Stephen Colbert, "an elitist snob."

But calling it "politically incorrect" is unfair to Lewis and the interview. I don't think Lewis was trying to be anything. That's bull__t, he might have agreed. He was simply answering the questions as truthfully as he could (and trying to be a bit funny). He dissed Colbert but praised Tina Fey as "brilliant."  

Lewis was not really part of my generation, and I am somewhat unschooled in vintage comedies, so I can't say I was ever a great fan. I always associated him with silly movies and the Muscular Dystrophy telethons. Though I did think his portrayal of "Jerry Langford" in The King of Comedy was nifty.

But the interview made me want to review his work (the EWTN segment contained some clips).

At the end of the interview (not transcribed here). Lewis tells Arroyo that he was the "best interviewer he ever had." I can believe it. And I think Lewis meant it. Among other things, there's such an obvious sense of good will between the two men.

If you missed it in 2015, and if you have time, watch the full interview, below. It reveals much about Lewis, the comedian and the person, as well as giving a glimpse into the history of mid-20th century comedy and show business.

Tomorrow, I'll post a video of the worst interviewer Jerry Lewis ever had...

The EWTN segment lasted 57 minutes, with the interview taking up most of it. The transcribed section is from approximately 43:55 to 50:00:

Raymond Arroyo: You told a story about going to China recently...

Jerry Lewis: Well they took me to the Great Wall, and I was with probably 200 press. (They) followed me all over Shanghai and all over China. But at the Great Wall I'm standing there with a reporter from United Press and he said, "well what do you think of the Great Wall?" I said "I think it's nice but it ain't great." It made the front pages of every paper in Asia: "Jerry Lewis calls the Great Wall, 'nice.'" And I said, "how do you say nice in China?" "Tongue-Yao." Nice.

Arroyo: Not so nice.

Lewis: I don't even know what that means, "Tongue-Yao." Well you never know that they have a special way of naming Chinese children. It's a special way. They take a huge silver platter. They put it on the ground. They grab a handful of silverware. They throw the silverware up in the air, and as the silverware hits the platter - "ting tong ching chong tong ting" is how they named Chinese children.

Arroyo: Now, you know when some people hear a joke like that, they say, well that's politically incorrect. You shouldn't be telling that joke.

Lewis: Oh, bullshit. [EWTN bleeped this out.]

Arroyo: What do you say?

Lewis: I got six Catholic jokes that'll stop their services.

Arroyo: You can't tell them now.

Lewis: No, of course not.

Arroyo: But you can tell me when we're finished.

Lewis: So these two Jews... no [Lewis makes the sign of the cross].

Arroyo: That's what I like, to see, Jerry.

Lewis: And that's not easy when you're a Jew [winks].

Arroyo: I know, I know, but that's good, it's good practice. Um, tell me who do you consider funny today. I'm going to give you some names...

Lewis: Robin Williams...

Arroyo: Oh, but he's gone.

Lewis: What he did is not gone. Billy Crystal...

Arroyo: Oh hilarious.

Lewis: I mean...

Arroyo: Jimmy Fallon...

Lewis: He's a beginner. He's got a long way to go. But he's doing well, he's doing well. The fact that he's doing the third show makes it well. Jimmy Fallon could never ever be like the old comics that we remember. He could never do what I do because he had too many years on Saturday Night Live, which was a series of this is what you will do and that's what we're shooting next. No point of view. No contribution. They just did what was on the credit...on the cue card. And I think Jimmy is suffering from that kind of work. And watch him in about a year. You're going to see a development of this kid that's going to be so wonderful.

Arroyo: What about Stephen Colbert?

Lewis: I don't like him.

Arroyo: Why not?

Lewis: I think he's a snob. I think he's elitist and snob.

Arroyo: Hmm Tina Fey...

Lewis: Ah, wonderful.

Arroyo: Really?

Lewis: Brilliant, brilliant, everything comes from her brain. Marvelous.

Arroyo: I want to talk about some quick contemporary events. You are beloved in France.

Lewis: Don't forget it [makes funny look off camera].

Arroyo: The French Legion of Honor.

Lewis: And the Commander of Arts and Letters.

Arroyo: You are adored there. I mean, when you show up at Cannes or... it's, forget Angelina Jolie or anybody else. It's Jerry Lewis everybody wants to see.

Lewis: Pretty much.

Arroyo: And humble, too...[Lewis smiles]. When you watch what’s been happening on CNN and on Fox, ISIS blowing up, shooting people indiscriminately — what went through your mind as you saw this?

Jerry Lewis: You gotta remember something. ISIS has attacked the world, OK? And all of a sudden I’m wondering, where are all of our NATO allies? Why don’t I have Germany, and Italy, and Great Britain? Why don’t I have all of them, including Spain, doing something? Get all of your military together, bring that military to our military, and wipe ’em out. They’re asking to be stopped. And we’re not stopping them, we’re just reporting what they’re doing. That’s ridiculous.

Arroyo: And what do you think about the refugees?

Lewis: The refugees should stay where the hell they are.

Arroyo: They say there’s a humanitarian crisis. They’re fleeing. They have to come to America...

Lewis: Hey, nobody has worked harder for the human condition than I have. But they’re not part of the human condition, if 11 guys in that group of 10,000 are ISIS. How can I take the chance? I don’t want to lose another Frenchman or another Englishman. That bothers me. You can’t really knock the president [Obama] per se because he was never given to understand that’s out there. He was never ready, never prepared for it. And what I’m watching in him is uncertainty. And you don’t have uncertainty in a leader. A leader doesn’t give a s___ what he does, but he gets it done.

Arroyo: Politics: I know you watch it. I see you watching news every minute of the day. What do you think of Donald Trump?

Lewis: I think he’s great.

Arroyo: Why?

Lewis: Because he’s a showman. And we’ve never had a showman in the president’s chair.

Arroyo: Well, you had Ronald Reagan. He was a bit of a showman.

Lewis: Well, that’s different. You can’t make a comparison with Ronald Reagan, because I can do three hours on him with just praise, he was so good.

Arroyo: Alright, final questions: What is the legacy of Jerry Lewis?

Lewis: The legacy?

Arroyo: The legacy of Jerry Lewis.

Lewis: My son.

Saturday, August 19, 2017

Muslim Bomb and Stabbing Attack in Siberian City Leaves 8 Injured, 2 Critically

A lone policeman calls for help over the body of a man who went on a  bomb and stabbing rampage in Surgut, Russia

Only 24 hours after the Muslim stabbing attack in Turku, Finland, there was another Muslim stabbing incident in a far-north European city.

In Surgut, Russia, a man detonated a molotov-cocktail-like device in a shopping mall and then went on a stabbing spree before being shot dead by police. Eight people were injured, including two who are "fighting for their lives."

The attacker is believed to be a Muslim from the Russian republic of Dagestan. ISIS allegedly took credit for the attack, though Russian authorities are skeptical of the link.

Surgut is a city of approximately 350,000 located in the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug of Siberia. Ironically, the administrative area is roughly the size of Finland and its latitude of 61 degrees North is almost precisely that of Turku.

Russia has a Muslim population of at least 12%, many of them concentrated in a few republics in the Caucasus. Mahound's Paradise has no idea what the figure is for the proportion of Muslims in Surgut or west-central Siberia.

From the Daily Mail (the CCTV video is accessible on the site):
CCTV ‘shows Russian knifeman planting and igniting explosive device in shopping mall moments before going on a stabbing spree which killed eight’
  • Siberian knifeman, was named locally as 19-year-old Artur Gadzhiev
  • He is believed to be from Dagestan, a strongly Muslim region of Russia
  • He was shot dead by armed police in a busy street in Surgut, central Russia
  • At least two people fighting for their lives while another five were hospitalised
  • New video has emerged appearing to show him igniting device in shopping mall
A new video of the Russian teenage knifeman, appearing to plant and ignite an explosive device in a shopping mall before going on a stabbing spree, has emerged today.
The footage showing an explosion in Surgut shopping mall will raise fears that the incident was a terrorist attack, as the Islamic State has claimed.
The man, believed to be 19-year-old Artur Gadzhiev is shown clearly from a CCTV camera. He is also accused of stabbing at least eight people in city streets.
An explosion is seen on the footage, matching witness statements about the incident.
Russian officials on Saturday gave minimal details about the attack in the Siberian oil city, and initially played down a terrorism incident.
The attacker, named locally as Gadzhiev, was shot dead by police in a busy main street in Surgut, central Russia, at about 11.20am local time.
He is believed to be from Dagestan, a strongly Muslim region of Russia in the Caucasus.
Gadzhiev's father Lametulakh was reported to be registered with Russian police as an 'extremist' and 'supporter' of radical Islam.
Shocking CCTV shows people fleeing for their lives as the attacker rampaged outside shops in the city.
Footage shows him running by a pavilion and throwing something away before he was shot dead.
At least two people are fighting for their lives, while another five were hospitalised in the stabbing spree, authorities said.
However witnesses claimed that the number of victims could be much higher.
The attacker was originally named as Bobichel Abdurakhmanov but his 'real name' was later reported by Mash, a media seen as close to law enforcement sources, and quickly reported by mainstream Russian news sources, including state media.
There was no immediate separate confirmation from the authorities. Gadzhiev was from Khasavyurt town, and it was unclear why he was in Surgut.
He was reported to be a supporter of Zenit St Petersburg and Manchester United football clubs.
His behaviour was sometimes described as 'strange' but he was not registered as a person with 'mental problems', according to unidentified locals.
Earlier the Russian Investigative Committee said it was looking into 'his possible psychiatric disorders'.
But local news agency, Surgut Inter Novosti, suggested the violent attack was larger than the authorities had initially revealed.
'According to witnesses, unknown people threw a Molotov cocktail bottle inside 'Severny' shop, then they attacked a woman with an axe near a cash machine.
'More than 10 people with injuries have been taken into emergency care.'
But there was no immediate official confirmation of this claim.
The knifeman 'carried out attacks on passers-by, causing stab wounds to eight,' Russia's Investigative Committee, which probes major crimes said.
The spokesman added that armed police 'liquidated' the attacker.
Nobody was killed in the assault but victims needed immediate medical treatment, said officers.
At least two of the victims were fighting for their lives while five more were in a stable condition, the government of the Khanty-Mansi region said in a statement.
There were reports that more than one attacker was involved and that the number of victims was higher than officials have disclosed, but these claims have not been verified.
The attacker may have suffered from a psychiatric disorder, the interior ministry said.
'The version that the attack was a terrorist one is not the main one,' the interior ministry added.
'In the interests of public calm and also of the investigation, citizens and media are recommended to use reliable information in assessing the situation until all the circumstances are established.'
Surgut is the largest city of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area region with a population of around 350,000.
It is a major centre for oil and gas production in the country.

Finland Stabber a Moroccan Asylum Seeker, Specifically Targeted Women, May Have Been Part of Larger Terror Cell

On the site where two people bled to death, a woman plays a lullaby on a traditional Finnish instrument 

Finnish authorities revealed that the Turku, Finland stabber, who was injured but is now in custody, is an eighteen-year-old asylum seeker from Morocco. After first claiming that there was no evidence that it was a terror attack, the authorities stated that they had "received additional information" confirming that "the criminal offenses are now terrorist killings." Five other men were arrested.

The article from The Telegraph, below, summarizes the recent news as well as highlighting what has now become a mini-story in the international press - that the attacker targeted women, and the two men that were injured were hurt trying to come to their defense.       
Finland 'terror' attack: Briton injured 'trying to save' women targeted in attack which left two dead 
A British man was injured in the Finland terror attack as he tried to help save eight women from a knife-wielding attacker who killed two of them. 
The attacker stabbed two Finnish women to death and injured six more in a market place in the city of Turku, 90 miles west of the capital, Helsinki, on Friday, as a British man tried to save them. 
Police shot and wounded the 18-year-old attacker in the leg and arresting him minutes after the afternoon stabbing rampage in the busy market square. 
The police say the Moroccan man specifically targeted women and it was the intervention of the British man and one other that helped to save more lives before he was apprehended. 
"We think that the attacker especially targeted women, and the men were wounded after coming to the defence of the women," superintendent Christa Granroth of Finland's National Bureau of Investigation. 
"One man was injured trying to help a victim and one man tried to stop the attacker," Granroth said. 
Two Finnish citizens were killed in the attack and a British man, two Swedes and an Italian were injured. 
The victims ranged in age from 15 to 67. 
The British Embassy in Helsinki said: "We have been in touch with the British National and offered consular support." 
The British man sustained minor injuries, he was taken to hospital for treatment and later released. 
Hassan Zubier, 45, the other man who tried to help, was repeatedly stabbed in the neck and chest as he tried to protect his girlfriend and others. 
One victim died in his arms as he tried to save her. 
"We were strolling around the square when we suddenly heard someone screaming. I turned around and saw a guy stabbing a woman with a knife while she was on the ground," Mr Zubier told Swedish daily Expressen from the Turku hospital. 
"I rushed to help her and tried to stop the blood flow. Others gave her heart and lung assistance." 
Mr Zubier, a Swedish national. 
"I try to stop the violent bleeding from her throat. Then he stabs me with the knife again. The woman is so badly injured and she died in my arms." 
Mr Zubier and his girlfriend were on holiday in Turku. They were planning to have taken a cruise ship back to Stockholm on Friday night. 
Finnish police say the suspect, from Morocco, entered the country last year and was going through the asylum process. 
"The act had been investigated as murder, but during the night we received additional information which indicates that the criminal offenses are now terrorist killings," police said in a statement. 
The suspect's "identity is known to the police. He is an 18-year-old Moroccan citizen," it said. 
The attacks on Thursday in Barcelona were also carried out by a Moroccan-born terror cell, which left 14 dead. 
"There was a raid and we have now six suspects in custody, the main suspect and five others," detective superintendent Markus Laine of the National Bureau of Investigation said. 
"We are investigating the role of these five other people but we are not sure yet if they had anything to do with [the attack]... We will interrogate them, after that we can tell you more. But they had been in contact with the main suspect," Mr Laine added.